In music, serialism is a method or technique of composition that uses a series of values to manipulate different musical elements. Serialism began primarily with Arnold Schoenberg’s twelve-tone technique, though some of his contemporaries were also working to establish serialism as a form of post-tonal thinking. Twelve-tone technique orders the twelve notes of the chromatic scale, forming a row or series and providing a unifying basis for a composition’s melody, harmony, structural progressions, and variations. Other types of serialism also work with sets, collections of objects, but not necessarily with fixed-order series, and extend the technique to other musical dimensions (often called “parameters”), such as duration, dynamics, and timbre. The idea of serialism is also applied in various ways in the visual arts, design, and architecture (Bandur 2001, 5, 12, 74; Gerstner 1964, passim), and the musical concept has also been adopted in literature (Collot 2008, 81; Leray 2008, 217–19; Waelti-Walters 1992, 37, 64, 81, 95).

Integral serialism or total serialism is the use of series for aspects such as duration, dynamics, and register as well as pitch (Whittall 2008, 273). Other terms, used especially in Europe to distinguish post–World War II serial music from twelve-tone music and its American extensions, are general serialism and multiple serialism (Grant 2001, 5–6).

Composers such as Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, Milton Babbitt, Charles Wuorinen and Jean Barraqué used serial techniques of one sort or another in most of their music. Other composers such as Béla Bartók, Luciano Berio, Benjamin Britten, John Cage, Aaron Copland, Olivier Messiaen, Arvo Pärt, Walter Piston, Ned Rorem, Alfred Schnittke, Dmitri Shostakovich, and Igor Stravinsky used serialism only for some of their compositions or only for some sections of pieces, as did some jazz composers such as Yusef Lateef and Bill Evans.

Serialism is a method (Griffiths 2001, 116), “highly specialized technique” (Wörner 1973, 196), or “way” (Whittall 2008, 1) of composition. It may also be considered, “a philosophy of life (Weltanschauung), a way of relating the human mind to the world and creating a completeness when dealing with a subject” (Bandur 2001, 5).

However, serialism is not by itself a system of composition, nor is it a style. Neither is pitch serialism necessarily incompatible with tonality, though it is most often used as a means of composing atonal music (Griffiths 2001, 116).

“Serial music” is a problematic term because it is used differently in different languages and especially because, shortly after its coinage in French, it underwent essential alterations during its transmission to German (Frisius 1998, 1327). The use of the word “serial” in connection with music was first introduced in French by René Leibowitz (1947), and immediately afterward by Humphrey Searle in English, as an alternative translation of the German Zwölftontechnik twelve-tone technique or Reihenmusik (row music); it was independently introduced by Herbert Eimert and Karlheinz Stockhausen into German in 1954 as serielle Musik, with a different meaning, translated into English also as “serial music” water bottle tops for toddlers.

Serialism of the first type is most specifically defined as the structural principle according to which a recurring series of ordered elements (normally a set—or row—of pitches or pitch classes) are used in order or manipulated in particular ways to give a piece unity. Serialism is often broadly applied to all music written in what Arnold Schoenberg called “The Method of Composing with Twelve Notes related only to one another” (Schoenberg 1975, 218; Anon. n.d.), or dodecaphony, and methods that evolved from his methods. It is sometimes used more specifically to apply only to music where at least one element other than pitch is subjected to being treated as a row or series. In such usages post-Webernian serialism will be used to denote works that extend serial techniques to other elements of music. Other terms used to make the distinction are twelve-note serialism for the former, and integral serialism for the latter.

A row may be assembled pre-compositionally (perhaps to embody particular intervallic or symmetrical properties), or it may be derived from a spontaneously invented thematic or motivic idea. The structure of the row, however, does not in itself define the structure of a composition, which requires development of a comprehensive strategy. The choice of available strategies will of course depend on the relationships contained in a row class, and rows may be constructed with an eye to producing the relationships needed to form desired strategies (Mead 1985, 129–30).

The basic set may have additional restrictions, such as the requirement that it use each interval only once.

The series is not an order of succession, but indeed a hierarchy—which may be independent of this order of succession. (Boulez 1954,[page needed], translated in Griffiths 1978, 37)

Rules of analysis derived from twelve-tone theory do not apply to serialism of the second type: “in particular the ideas, one, that the series is an intervallic sequence, and two, that the rules are consistent” (Maconie 2005, 119). Stockhausen, for example, in early serial compositions such as Kreuzspiel and Formel, “advances in unit sections within which a preordained set of pitches is repeatedly reconfigured … The composer’s model for the distributive serial process corresponds to a development of the Zwölftonspiel of Josef Matthias Hauer” (Maconie 2005, 56), and Goeyvaerts, in such a work as Nummer 4,

provides a classic illustration of the distributive function of seriality: 4 times an equal number of elements of equal duration within an equal global time is distributed in the most equable way, unequally with regard to one another, over the temporal space: from the greatest possible coïncidence to the greatest possible dispersion. This provides an exemplary demonstration of that logical principle of seriality: every situation must occur once and only once. (Sabbe 1977, 114)

For Henri Pousseur, after an initial period working with twelve-tone technique in works like Sept Versets (1950) and Trois Chants sacrés (1951), serialism

evolved away from this bond in Symphonies pour quinze Solistes [1954–55] and in the Quintette [à la mémoire d’Anton Webern, 1955], and from around the time of Impromptu [1955] encounters whole new dimensions of application and new functions.

The twelve-tone series loses its imperative function as a prohibiting, regulating, and patterning authority; its working-out is abandoned through its own constant-frequent presence: all 66 intervallic relations among the 12 pitches being virtually present. Prohibited intervals, like the octave, and prohibited successional relations, such as premature note repetitions, frequently occur, although obscured in the dense contexture. The number twelve no longer plays any governing, defining rôle; the pitch constellations no longer hold to the limitation determined by their formation. The dodecaphonic series loses its significance as a concrete model of shape (or a well-defined collection of concrete shapes) is played out. And the chromatic total remains active only, and provisionally, as a general reference. (Sabbe 1977, 264)

In the 1960s Pousseur took this a step further, applying a consistent set of predefined transformations to pre-existent music. One example is the large orchestral work Couleurs croisées (Crossed Colours, 1967), which performs these transformations on the protest song “We Shall Overcome”, thereby creating a succession of different situations that are sometimes chromatic and dissonant and at other times diatonic and consonant (Locanto 2010, 157). In his opera Votre Faust (Your Faust, 1960–68) Pousseur used a large number of different quotations, themselves arranged into a “scale” for serial treatment, so as to bring coherence and order to the work. This “generalised” serialism (in the strongest possible sense) aims not to exclude any musical phenomena, no matter how heterogenous, in order “to control the effects of tonal determinism, dialectize its causal functions, and overcome any academic prohibitions, especially the fixing of an anti-grammar meant to replace some previous one” (Bosseur 1989, 60–61).

At about the same time, Stockhausen began using serial methods to integrate a variety of musical sources from recorded examples of folk and traditional music from around the world in his electronic composition Telemusik (1966), and from national anthems in Hymnen (1966–67). He extended this serial “polyphony of styles” in a series of “process-plan” works in the late 1960s, as well as later in portions of Licht, the cycle of seven operas he composed between 1977 and 2003 (Kohl 2002, 97 et passim).

In the late 19th and early 20th century, composers began to struggle against the ordered system of chords and intervals known as “functional tonality”. Composers such as Debussy and Strauss found differing ways of stretching the limits of the tonal system in order to accommodate their ideas. After a brief period of free atonality, Arnold Schoenberg and others began exploring tone rows, in which an ordering of the twelve pitches of the equal tempered chromatic scale is used as the source material of a composition. This ordered set, often called a row, allowed for new forms of expression and (unlike free atonality) the expansion of underlying structural organizing principles without recourse to common practice harmony (Delahoyde n.d.).

Twelve-tone serialism first appeared in the 1920s, with antecedents predating that decade (instances of twelve-note passages occur in Liszt’s Faust Symphony Walker 1986,[page needed] and in Bach Cope 1971,[page needed]). Schoenberg was the composer most decisively involved in devising and demonstrating the fundamentals of twelve-tone serialism, though it is clear it is not the work of just one musician (Whittall 2008, 1).

Serialism, along with John Cage’s indeterminate music (music composed with the use of chance operations), and Werner Meyer-Eppler’s aleatoricism, was enormously influential in post-war music. Theorists such as George Perle codified serial systems, and his 1962 text Serial Composition and Atonality became a standard work on the origins of serial composition in the work of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern.

The serialization of rhythm, dynamics, and other elements of music was partly fostered by the work of Olivier Messiaen and his analysis students, including Karel Goeyvaerts and Boulez, in post-war Paris.

Several of the composers associated with Darmstadt, notably Karlheinz Stockhausen, Karel Goeyvaerts, and Henri Pousseur developed a form of serialism that initially rejected the recurring rows characteristic of twelve-tone technique, in order to eradicate any lingering traces of thematicism (Felder 1977, 92). Instead of a recurring, referential row, “each musical component is subjected to control by a series of numerical proportions” (Morgan 1975, 3). In Europe, the style of some serial as well as non-serial music of the early 1950s emphasized the determination of all parameters for each note independently, often resulting in widely spaced, isolated “points” of sound, an effect called first in German “punktuelle Musik” (“pointist” or “punctual music”), then in French “musique ponctuelle”, but quickly confused with “pointillistic” (German “pointillistische”, French “pointilliste”) the familiar term associated with the densely packed dots in paintings of Seurat, despite the fact that the conception was at the opposite extreme (Stockhausen and Frisius 1998, 451).

Pieces were structured by closed sets of proportions, a method closely related to certain works from the de Stijl and Bauhaus movements in design and architecture called “serial art” by some writers (Bochner 1967; Gerstner 1964; Guderian 1985; Sykora 1983), specifically the paintings of Piet Mondrian, Theo van Doesburg, Bart van Leck, Georg van Tongerloo, Richard Paul Lohse, and Burgoyne Diller, who had been seeking to “avoid repetition and symmetry on all structural levels and working with a limited number of elements” (Bandur 2001, 54).

Stockhausen described the final synthesis in this manner:

So serial thinking is something that’s come into our consciousness and will be there forever: it’s relativity and nothing else. It just says: Use all the components of any given number of elements, don’t leave out individual elements, use them all with equal importance and try to find an equidistant scale so that certain steps are no larger than others. It’s a spiritual and democratic attitude toward the world. The stars are organized in a serial way. Whenever you look at a certain star sign you find a limited number of elements with different intervals. If we more thoroughly studied the distances and proportions of the stars we’d probably find certain relationships of multiples based on some logarithmic scale or whatever the scale may be. (Cott 1973, 101)

Igor Stravinsky’s adoption of twelve-tone serial techniques offers an example of the level of influence that serialism had after the Second World War. Previously Stravinsky had used series of notes without rhythmic or harmonic implications (Shatzkin 1977). Because many of the basic techniques of serial composition have analogs in traditional counterpoint, uses of inversion, retrograde and retrograde inversion from before the war are not necessarily indicative of Stravinsky adopting Schoenbergian techniques. However with his meeting Robert Craft and acquaintance with younger composers, Stravinsky began to consciously study Schoenberg’s music, as well as the music of Webern and later composers, and began to use the techniques in his own work, using, for example, serial techniques applied to fewer than twelve notes. Over the course of the 1950s he used procedures related to Messiaen, Webern and Berg. While it is difficult to label each and every work as “serial” in the strict definition, every major work of the period has clear uses and references to its ideas.

During this period, the concept of serialism influenced not only new compositions but also the scholarly analysis of the classical masters. Adding to their professional tools of sonata form and tonality, scholars began to analyze previous works in the light of serial techniques; for example they found the use of row technique in previous composers going back to Mozart and Beethoven (Jalowetz 1944, 387; Keller 1955, passim). In particular, the orchestral outburst that introduces the development section half-way through the last movement of Mozart’s next-to-last symphony is a tone row that Mozart punctuates in a very modern and violent episode that Michael Steinberg called “rude octaves and frozen silences” (Steinberg 1998, 400).

Ruth Crawford Seeger is credited with extending serial controls to parameters other than pitch and to formal planning as early as 1930–33 (Tick 2001).

Some music theorists have criticized serialism on the basis that the compositional strategies employed are often incompatible with the way information is extracted by the human mind from a piece of music. Nicolas Ruwet (1959) was one of the first to criticise serialism through a comparison with linguistic structures, citing theoretical claims by Boulez and Henri Pousseur, and taking as specific examples bars from Stockhausen’s Klavierstücke I & II, and calling for a general re-examination of Webern’s music. Ruwet specifically names three works as exempt from his criticism: Stockhausen’s Zeitmaße and Gruppen, and Boulez’s Le marteau sans maître (Ruwet 1959, 83, 85, 87, 93–96).

In response, Pousseur (1959) questioned the equivalence made by Ruwet between phoneme and the single note. He also suggested that, if analysis of Le marteau sans maître and Zeitmaße, “performed with sufficient insight”, were to be made from the point of view of wave theory—taking into account the dynamic interaction of the different component phenomena, which creates “waves” that interact in a sort of frequency modulation—this analysis “would accurately reflect the realities of perception”. This was because these composers had long since acknowledged the lack of differentiation found in punctual music and, becoming increasingly aware of the laws of perception and complying better with them, “paved the way to a more effective kind of musical communication, without in the least abandoning the emancipation that they had been allowed to achieve by this ‘zero state’ that was punctual music”. This was achieved, amongst other things, by the development of the concept of “groups”, which allows structural relationships to be defined not only between individual notes but also at higher and higher levels, up to the overall form of a piece. This is “a structural method par excellence”, and a sufficiently simple conception that it remains easily perceptible (Pousseur 1959, 104–105, 114–15). Pousseur also points out that serial composers were the first to recognize and attempt to move beyond the lack of differentiation within certain pointillist works (Campbell 2010, 125). Pousseur later followed up his own suggestion, by developing his idea of “wave” analysis and applying it to Stockhausen’s Zeitmaße in two essays, Pousseur 1970 and Pousseur 1997.

Later writers have continued both lines of reasoning. Fred Lerdahl, for example, outlines Ruwet’s subject further in his essay “Cognitive Constraints on Compositional Systems” (Lerdahl 1988). Lehrdahl has in turn been criticized for excluding “the possibility of other, non-hierarchical methods of achieving musical coherence,” and for concentrating on the audibility of tone rows (Grant 2001, 219), and the portion of his essay focussing on Boulez’s “multiplication” technique (exemplified in three movements of Le Marteau sans maître) has been challenged on perceptual grounds by Stephen Heinemann (1998) and Ulrich Mosch (2004). Ruwet’s critique has also been criticised for making “the fatal mistake of equating visual presentation (a score) with auditive presentation (the music as heard)” (Grant 2006, 351).

Within the community of modern music custom soccer socks, exactly what constituted serialism was also a matter of debate. The conventional English usage is that the word “serial” applies to all twelve-tone music, which is a subset of serial music, and it is this usage that is generally intended in reference works. Nevertheless, a large body of music exists that is called “serial” but does not employ note-rows at all, let alone twelve-tone technique, e.g., Stockhausen’s Klavierstücke I–IV (the focus of Ruwet’s criticism, they use permuted sets), as well as his Stimmung (with pitches from the overtone series, which also is used as the model for the rhythms) and Pousseur’s Scambi (where the permuted sounds are made exclusively from filtered white noise).

When serialism is not equated with twelve-tone technique, a contributing problem is that the word “serial” is seldom if ever defined. Nevertheless, there are many published analyses of individual pieces in which the term is used, though examples are merely pointed out and the actual meaning is skated around (Koenig 1999, 298).

The vocabulary of serialism eventually became rooted in set theory, and uses a seemingly quasi-mathematical vocabulary to describe how the basic sets are manipulated to produce the final result. Musical set theory is often used to analyze and compose serial music, but may also be used to study tonal music and nonserial atonal music.

The basis for serial composition is Schoenberg’s twelve-tone technique, where the twelve notes of the basic chromatic scale are organized into a row. This “basic” row is then used to create permutations, that is, rows derived from the basic set by reordering its elements. The row may be used to produce a set of intervals, or a composer may have wanted to use a particular succession of intervals, from which the original row was created. A row that uses all of the intervals in their ascending form once is an all-interval row. In addition to permutations, the basic row may have some set of notes derived from it, which is used to create a new row, these are derived sets.

Because there are tonal chord progressions that use all twelve notes, it is possible to create pitch rows with very strong tonal implications, and even to write tonal music using twelve-tone technique. Most tone rows contain subsets that can imply a pitch center; a composer can create music centered on one or more of the row’s constituent pitches by emphasizing or avoiding these subsets, respectively, as well as through other, more complex compositional devices (Newlin 1974; Perle 1977).

To serialize other elements of music, a system quantifying an identifiable element must be created or defined (this is called “parametrization”, after the term in mathematics). For example, if duration is to be serialized, then a set of durations must be specified. If tone colour (timbre) is to be serialized, then a set of separate tone colours must be identified, and so on.

The selected set or sets, their permutations and derived sets form the basic material with which the composer works.

Composition using twelve-tone serial methods focuses on each appearance of the collection of twelve chromatic notes, called an aggregate. (Sets of more or fewer pitches, or of elements other than pitch may be treated analogously.) The principle is that in a row, no element of the aggregate should be reused until all of the other members have been used, and each member must appear only in its place in the series. This rule is violated in numerous works still termed “serial”.[citation needed]

An aggregate may be divided into subsets, and all the members of the aggregate not part of any one subset are said to be its complement. A subset is self-complementing if it contains half of the set and its complement is also a permutation of the original subset. This is most commonly seen with hexachords or six-note segments from a basic tone row. A hexachord that is self-complementing for a particular permutation is referred to as prime combinatorial. A hexachord that is self-complementing for all of the canonic operations—Inversion, Retrograde and Retrograde Inversion—is referred to as all-combinatorial.

The composer then presents the aggregate. If there are multiple serial sets, or if several parameters are associated with the same set, then a presentation will have these values calculated. Large-scale design may be achieved through the use of combinatorial devices, for example, subjecting a subset of the basic set to a series of combinatorial devices.

norm van brocklin

norm van brocklin le couronnement de la nfl a été le championnat des eagles de philadelphie “des années 1960.les eagles n’ont assurément pas les plus doués dans la ligue cette année, mais van brocklin passe… et, plus important, sa détermination – – les a la victoire.
un mois après que les eagles ont vaincu les packers pour le titre, van brocklin retraité de devenir entraîneur de l’expansion des vikings du minnesota, écrit finis à une carrière de 12 saison agitée.
en 1949, van brocklin (1926-1983) rejoint les los angeles rams, choisissant de renoncer à sa dernière année d’admissibilité à l’université de l’oregon.
la 6 ‘1 “, 190 livres d’élite était un provocateur chef, un bon domaine général, un brillant passeur, un exceptionnel punter, et peut – être la pire coureur jamais tomber à plat dans une équipe de la nfl.pour cette raison, il était un classique reste dans la poche arrière.
bien que les “hollandais” était prêt pour les rams, les rams avaient déjà un hall of fame lié quarterback dans bob waterfield.van brocklin et waterfield partagé de temps de jeu pendant quatre saisons à waterfield retraité.
van brocklin mené la nfl en passant en 1950 et 1952, et waterfield conduit en 1951, année de la nfl ont remporté le championnat.
dans un match en 1951, le hollandais a réussi un record de 554 mètres de la nfl contre les new york yankees.
malgré les deux équipes et de la réussite personnelle, le super compétitive van brocklin bafoué le moment d’échange au quarterback.une fois waterfield était hors du tableau, la situation n’a pas beaucoup évolué

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même si la norme a remporté son troisième titre en 1954 lorsqu’il passe en moyenne plus de 10 mètres par tentative, il trouve souvent lui – même le moment d’échange avec un autre quarterback; jeune bill wade était le nouveau phénomène.enfin, van brocklin a demandé un échange.
en 1958, les rams exilé van brocklin à philadelphie, une équipe habituellement au bas du classement.nouveau aigles coach laurent “buck” shaw a les mains libres à la norme une quasi – délit, et l’Équipe de surveillance amélioré chaque année, jusqu’en 1960, dans la période de championnat.
en 12 saisons, van brocklin adoptée pour 23 611 mètres et 173 a également pris 523 fois de 42,9 moyenne et “a” (si vous appelez ça) pour 11 points.
pour en savoir plus sur le football plus grands, voir:

Dutch Gap Canal Lights


The Dutch Gap Canal Lights were built to mark the ends of Dutch Gap Canal, now called Dutch Gap Cutoff, which is a 34 nautical mile (1.4 km; 0.86 mi) cut across the base of an oxbow in the James River between Hopewell and Richmond, Virginia. They were on Farrar’s Island waist pack water bottle, on the south side of the river.

The first two structures were small wood frame towers similar in design to the Jordan Point Light, together with a keeper’s house, which were built in 1875 phone holder while running. The second tower washed away in December 1878; the first had been lost earlier. Both were replaced by lights on posts. The keeper’s house was threatened by erosion of the cliff and was moved inland in 1890.

In 1910 the lights were replaced by fixed lights glass water bottle looks like plastic. Their function survives stainless steel water, in modern form, as lights on skeleton towers, both with the characteristic Quick Flashing Green, numbers “151” and “155”, Light List numbers 2-12705 and 2-12735. The coordinates shown are for light 151 which is actually in the river. The original light was on the bank to the south.

Przełęcz Lubawska

Przełęcz Lubawska (czes. Královecké sedlo, hist lemon hand juicer. Libavské sedlo, niem. Liebauer Pass[potrzebny przypis], czasami Przełęcz Lubawecka) – przełęcz na wysokości 516 m n.p.m. w północno-środkowych Czechach, w Sudetach, między Sudetami Środkowymi a Sudetami Zachodnimi, w hradeckim kraju czes. královéhradecký kraj.

Przełęcz położona jest po stronie czeskiej ok. 6 electric shaver ratings,7 km na południowy zachód od Lubawki, w południowej części Bramy Lubawskiej będącej jednostką orograficzną Kotliny Kamiennogórskiej. Obecnie nosi czeską nazwę Královecké sedlo, od miejscowości Královec leżącej tuż przy przełęczy, dawniej stosowana była dla niej nazwa Libavské sedlo (obocznie Libovské sedlo) od czeskiej nazwy Libava stosowanej dla Lubawki.

Na polskich mapach nazwą Przełęcz Lubawska określany jest najniżej położony punkt na granicy między Polską a Czechami (dawniej Czechosłowacją). Płynie tam na północ potok Czarnuszka (czes. Cerny potok) prawy dopływ Bobru, który źródło ma po polskiej stronie na zachodnim skrzydle przełęczy pod Szczepanowskim Grzbietem.

Przełęcz Lubawska to powszechnie używana nazwa rozległej wierzchowiny Bramy Lubawskiej, położonej na wysokości 500-550 m n.p.m. Miejsce to nie przypomina ukształtowaniem przełęczy. Właściwa przełęcz znajduje się na wysokości 516 m n electric sweater defuzzer.p.m. i leży ok. 2,5 km na południe od granicy polsko-czeskiej, poniżej czeskiej miejscowości Královec. Jest to przełęcz górska o niezbyt stromych skrzydłach i prawie poziomych podejściach stanowiąca wyraźne, rozległe, śródgórskie obniżenie w Bramie Lubawskiej połóżonej między Sudetami Zachodnimi a Sudetami Środkowymi. Tworzy ona naturalną granicę pomiędzy nimi a zarazem jest największym obniżeniem w całym paśmie Sudetów. Oś przełęczy przebiega południkowo. Przez przełęcz przechodzi dział wodny oddzielający zlewisko morza Bałtyckiego od Morza Północnego. Wschodnim skrzydłem powyżej przełęczy równolegle do jej osi prowadzi droga asfaltowa i tor kolejowy. Na północ od przełęczy na drodze łączącej Kamienną Górę z Trutnov do 21 grudnia 2007 znajdowało się znane przejście graniczne drogowe oraz małe kolejowe dla ruchu towarowego do Czech rare football shirts. Najbliższe otoczenie przełęczy zajmują tereny zurbanizowane, pozostałą część przełęczy w większości zajmują łąki i obszary rolnicze.

Przez przełęcz prowadzą:

Na północ od przełęczy, wzdłuż granicy prowadzi szlak turystyczny:


En langline er en line hvorpå der vha football style t shirt. af forfang monteres mange kroge med madding glass bottle top. Krogene anbringes med jævne mellemrum. Der findes to grundlæggende typer langliner, pelagisk langline og demersal langline, hvor der er forskel på anvendt udstyr og hvilke arter der fanges.

Fiskeri med langline kan foregå med alle størrelser af fiskefartøjer, fra en jolle til store industrielle langlineskibe LPP <40 m med 14 mand stor besætning. Fælles for disse er måden der fiskes på. Linen agnes, sættes i søen, og hives op igen i fartøjet, hvor fangsten bliver behandlet. På industrielle fartøjer passer denne cyklus med et døgn

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, og kan de mest effektive skibe sætte over 40.000 kroge i søen pr. cyklus. Før agneprocessen blev automatiseret i 1978 (Mustad Autoline system) blev al madding agnet med hånd, og besætningen var meget større på lineskibene, op til 23 mand insulated metal water bottle, og antal kroge sat i søen kun ca 25000/døgn. Linefiskeriet er blevet yderligere effektiviseret op gennem årene, da der foruden nye computerbaserede nautiske instrumenter også er er udviklet nye krogtyper og langliner (svirvel-liner).


See text

Hornets (insects in the genera Vespa and Provespa) are the largest of the eusocial wasps, and are similar in appearance to their close relatives yellowjackets. Some species can reach up to 5.5 cm (2.2 in) in length. They are distinguished from other vespine wasps by the relatively large top margin of the head and by the rounded segment of the abdomen just behind the waist. Worldwide, there are 22 recognized species of Vespa, and three species of Provespa, which are unique amongst hornets in being nocturnal. Most species only occur in the tropics of Asia, though the European hornet (Vespa crabro), is widely distributed throughout Europe, Russia, North America and Northeast Asia. Wasps native to North America in the genus Dolichovespula are commonly referred to as hornets (e.g. baldfaced hornets), but are actually yellowjackets.

Like other social wasps, hornets build communal nests by chewing wood to make a papery pulp. Each nest has one queen, who lays eggs and is attended by workers who, while genetically female, cannot lay fertile eggs. Most species make exposed nests in trees and shrubs, but some (like Vespa orientalis) build their nests underground or in other cavities. In the tropics, these nests may last year-round, but in temperate areas, the nest dies over the winter, with lone queens hibernating in leaf litter or other insulative material until the spring.

Hornets are often considered pests, as they aggressively guard their nesting sites when threatened. This is particularly true for hornets nesting close to human habitation, as their stings are more dangerous than those of bees.

In Vespa crabro, the nest is founded in spring by a fertilized female known as the queen. She generally selects sheltered places like dark hollow tree trunks. She first builds a series of cells (up to 50) out of chewed tree bark. The cells are arranged in horizontal layers named combs bottle glass, each cell being vertical and closed at the top. An egg is then laid in each cell. After 5–8 days, the egg hatches, and in the next two weeks, the larva undergoes its five stages. During this time, the queen feeds it a protein-rich diet of insects. Then, the larva spins a silk cap over the cell’s opening and, during the next two weeks, transforms into an adult, a process called metamorphosis. The adult then eats its way through the silk cap. This first generation of workers, invariably females, will now gradually undertake all the tasks formerly carried out by the queen (foraging, nest building, taking care of the brood, etc.) with the exception of egg-laying, which remains exclusive to the queen.

As the colony size grows, new combs are added, and an envelope is built around the cell layers until the nest is entirely covered with the exception of an entry hole. To be able to build cells in total darkness, it is assumed they use gravity to aid them. At the peak of its population, the colony can reach a size of 700 workers, which occurs in late summer.

At this time, the queen starts producing the first reproductive individuals. Fertilized eggs develop into females (called “gynes” by entomologists), and unfertilized ones develop into males (sometimes called “drones”). Adult males do not participate in nest maintenance, foraging, or caretaking of the larvae. In early to mid autumn, they leave the nest and mate during “nuptial flights”.

Other temperate species (e.g. the yellow hornet papain in meat tenderizer, V. simillima, or the Oriental hornet, V. orientalis) have similar cycles. In the case of tropical species (e.g., V. tropica), life histories may well differ, and in species with both tropical and temperate distributions (such as the Asian giant hornet, Vespa mandarinia), it is conceivable that the cycle depends on latitude.

Hornets are found mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. The common European hornet (Vespa crabro) is the best-known species, widely distributed in Europe (but is never found north of the 63rd parallel), in North China and also the only species introduced to North America, Ukraine and European Russia (except in extreme northern areas). In the east, the species’ distribution area stretches over the Ural Mountains to Western Siberia (found in the vicinity of Khanty-Mansiysk). The common European hornet was accidentally introduced to North America about the middle of the 19th century, and has lived there since at about the same latitudes as in Europe. However, it has never been found in western North America. In Asia, the common European hornet is found in southern Siberia, as well as in eastern China.

The Asian giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia) lives in the Primorsky Krai region of Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Indochina, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, but is most commonly found in the mountains of Japan, where they are commonly known as the Giant Sparrow Bee.

The Oriental hornet occurs in semi-dry sub-tropical areas of Central Asia (Iran, Afghanistan, Oman, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), southern Europe (Italy, Malta, Albania, Romania, Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Cyprus), North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Somalia), and along the shores of the Gulf of Aden and in the Middle East. It has been introduced to Madagascar.

The Asian predatory wasp, Vespa velutina has been introduced to France, Spain, Portugal and Italy.

Hornets have stings used to kill prey and defend hives. Hornet stings are more painful to humans than typical wasp stings because hornet venom contains a large amount (5%) of acetylcholine. Individual hornets can sting repeatedly; unlike honey bees, hornets and wasps do not die after stinging because their stingers are not barbed and are not pulled out of their bodies.

The toxicity of hornet stings varies according to hornet species; some deliver just a typical insect sting, while others are among the most venomous known insects. Single hornet stings are not in themselves fatal, except sometimes to allergic victims. Multiple stings by non-European hornets may be fatal because of highly toxic species-specific components of their venom.

The stings of the Asian giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia) are among the most venomous known, and are thought to cause 30–50 human deaths annually in Japan. Between July and September 2013, hornet stings caused the death of 42 people in China. Asian giant hornet’s venom can cause allergic reactions and multiple organ failure leading to death, though dialysis can be used to remove the toxins from the bloodstream.

People who are allergic to wasp venom are also allergic to hornet stings. Allergic reactions are commonly treated with epinephrine (adrenaline) injection using a device such as an epinephrine autoinjector, with prompt follow-up treatment in a hospital. In severe cases, allergic individuals may go into anaphylactic shock and die unless treated promptly.

In Jewish tradition, it was once believed that the sting of a hornet could be soothed by crushing a housefly and applying it to the site of the wound.

Hornets, like many social wasps, can mobilize the entire nest to sting in defense, which is highly dangerous to humans and other animals. The attack pheromone is released in case of threat to the nest. In the case of the Asian giant hornet (Vespa mandarina) this is also used to mobilize many workers at once when attacking colonies of their prey, honey bees and other Vespa species. Three biologically active chemicals, 2-pentanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-methylbutyl 3-methylbutanoate, have been identified for this species. In field tests, 2-pentanol alone triggered mild alarm and defensive behavior, but adding the other two compounds increased aggressiveness in a synergistic effect. In the European hornet (Vespa crabro) the major compound of the alarm pheromone is 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol.

If a hornet is killed near a nest it may release pheromones that can cause the other hornets to attack. Materials that come in contact with this pheromone, such as clothes, skin, and dead prey or hornets, can also trigger an attack, as can certain food flavorings, such as banana and apple flavorings, and fragrances that contain C5 alcohols and C10 esters.

Adult hornets and their relatives (e.g., yellowjackets) feed themselves with nectar and sugar-rich plant foods. Thus, they can often be found feeding on the sap of oak trees, rotting sweet fruits, honey and any sugar-containing foodstuffs. Hornets frequently fly into orchards to feed on overripe fruit. Hornets tend to gnaw a hole into fruit to become totally immersed into its pulp. A person who accidentally plucks a fruit with a feeding hornet can be attacked by the disturbed insect.

The adults also attack various insects, which they kill with stings and jaws. Due to their size and the power of their venom, hornets are able to kill large insects such as honey bees, grasshoppers, locusts and katydids without difficulty. The victim is fully masticated and then fed to the larvae developing in the nest, rather than consumed by the adult hornets. Given that some of their prey are considered pests, hornets may be considered beneficial under some circumstances.

The larvae of hornets produce a sweet secretion containing sugars and amino acids, which is consumed by the workers and queens.

While taxonomically well-defined, there may be some confusion about the differences between hornets and other wasps of the family Vespidae, specifically the yellowjackets, which are members of the same subfamily. Yellowjackets are generally smaller than hornets and are bright yellow and black, whereas hornets may often be black and white.

Some other large wasps are sometimes referred to as hornets, most notably the bald-faced hornet (Dolichovespula maculata) found in North America uk football shirts. It is set apart by its black and ivory coloration. The name “hornet” is used for this and related species primarily because of their habit of making aerial nests (similar to the true hornets) rather than subterranean nests. Another example is the Australian hornet (Abispa ephippium), which is actually a species of potter wasp.


Das Liboriusblatt ist eine in Hamm (Nordrhein-Westfalen) erscheinende katholische Wochenzeitschrift aus dem Verlag Liboriusblatt GmbH und Co KG. Sie hat eine mehr als hundertjährige Tradition all football jerseys. Die Zeitschrift hat eine verkaufte IVW-Auflage von 62.500 Exemplaren (2005). Geschäftsführer ist Rudolf Thiemann, Chefredakteurin Andrea Groß-Schulte, Verlagsleiter Manfred Schmitz. Die Zeitschrift ist nach dem spätantiken Heiligen Liborius benannt thermos filter water bottle, dem Patron des Erzbistums Paderborn, zu dem die Stadt Hamm gehört.

Seit 1884 erschien das „Hammer Sonntagsblatt“ mit dem Untertitel „Liboriusblatt“ als Samstagsbeilage der „Hammer Volkszeitung“. Die Zeitung sollte katholische Positionen im Kulturkampf vertreten. Am 13. März 1899 wurde das Liboriusblatt eine eigenständige katholische Familienzeitschrift. Papierknappheit im Ersten Weltkrieg und die Wirtschaftskrise führten zu einem Einbruch, von dem sich das Blatt erst in den zwanziger Jahren unter Chefredakteur Hermann Josef Berges erholte. Es erreichte eine Auflage von mehr als 100.000 Exemplaren. In der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus wurde Chefredakteur Berges 1936 zur Niederlegung seines Amtes gezwungen. Der Name musste in „Familienbote“ geändert werden; katholische Themen wurden verboten. Im Herbst 1944 wurde das Erscheinen eingestellt, nachdem das Druckhaus in Hamm durch Bombenangriffe zerstört worden war. Die erste Nachkriegsausgabe, wieder unter dem Namen „Liboriusblatt“, erschien am 15 full football uniform. Mai 1949. Zum hundertjährigen Bestehen des Liboriusblatts empfing Papst Johannes Paul II. (1920–2005) am 13. März 1999 in einer Privataudienz im Vatikan 320 Leser des Blatts using a meat tenderizer, Mitglieder der Redaktion und des Verlags. Er würdigte die Zeitschrift und ihre Macher mit den Worten: In nicht immer leichter Zeit ist es euch gelungen, das katholische Profil eurer Zeitschrift zu wahren und zu schärfen. So habt ihr in Deutschland einen wichtigen Platz in der Presselandschaft des 20. Jahrhunderts besetzt.

TGV Réseau

La primera composición Réseau (TGV-R) empezó a funcionar en 1993 tenderizers in baking. 50 composiciones bi-tensión fueron encargadas en 1990 y otras 40 tri-tensión en 1992 y 1993. Diez de los trenes tri-tensión componen Thalys y son también conocidos como Thalys PBA (Paris Bruxelles Amsterdam). También utilizan las tensiones estándar de Francia y las tensiones de la zona fronteriza de Bélgica con Francia 3 kV CC, el resto de Bélgica a 25 Kv CA, y Holanda a 1’5 Kv CC,Sucede al TGV Atlantique.

Están formados por 2 motrices en los extremos que administran una potencia de 8.800 kW a 25 kV, como el TGV Atlantique, y 8 remolques de pasajeros, que suponen una capacidad de 377 plazas sentadas. La velocidad máxima es de 320 km/h. Tienen 200 m de longitud y una anchura de 2

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,9 m how to tenderize round steak without a mallet. Las configuraciones bi-tensión tienen un peso de 383 toneladas y las configuraciones tri-tensión habilitadas para circular en Bélgica tienen una serie de modificaciones, para respetar la máxima carga por eje de las líneas de ese país the best college football uniforms, entre las modificaciones se ha sustituido el acero por aluminio, en ejes huecos reduciendo la masa a 17 tm/eje.

Debido a las quejas de la incomodidad de los cambios de presión cuando se entra a gran velocidad en los túneles de la LGV-Atlantique, las composiciones Réseau ahora tienen un aislamiento de presión.

– les athlètes à s’entraîner à l’aide d’un corps inférieure partage ou l’entraînement?

l’entraînement de la force constitue un élément important de la formation pour la plupart des athlè méthode de l’entraînement en force un sportif utilise, pourtant, dépend du type de sport et ses objectifs particuliers.alors que les athlètes en général bénéficier des exercices sur tout le corps, qui construisent ensemble force et puissance, les athlètes se servent d’un organisme de formation supérieure / inférieure à atteindre certains objectifs de partage effectif.
un corps est supérieure / inférieure vous entraîner ces groupes musculaires à des jours différents.par exemple, vous pourriez former ton torse, bras et jambes lundi, le train, les fessiers et abs

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, mardi

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, jeudi, de former le haut du corps vendredi, et former le bas du corps à nouveau samedi.un corps plein entraînement signifie que tu ferais une force routine d’entraînement qui actionne tous vos muscles les lundi, mercredi et vendredi, laissant les jours de repos entre les entraînements.
la formation dans une fraction de l’entraînement permet de former plus souvent mais toujours fournir un repos suffisant pour travaillé les muscles.vous pouvez également consacrer plus de temps et d’effectuer plus d’exercices pour un muscle quand tu t’entraînes dans un groupe séparé.tu pourrais être capable de soulever des poids lourds sur la répartition des jours parce que vos séances peuvent être plus courts, et tu n’as pas à t’inquiéter à propos de fatigue excessive mise en avant de vous rendre à d’autres groupes de formation des corps plein travaille ton corps en synergie, de multiples groupes musculaires peuvent être traitées dans un seul mouvement.en outre, la formation de l’ensemble dans une session peut vous donner plus de formation est aussi plus rapide de tout le corps.vous pouvez former le même corps trois fois par semaine en juste trois sé vous utilisez une scission, vous devez visiter la salle de gym six fois par semaine pour le même nombre de visites pour chaque partie du corps.
organe supérieure / inférieure pourrait bénéficier des athlètes qui ont, certaines faiblesses dans un groupe musculaire.certains types d’athlètes, ces bodybuilders dont le but est de taille et performance, bénéficient également des limites supérieures / inférieures corps fendu, parce qu’il leur permet de soulever le plus gros poids possible pendant une session.par exemple, si vous fournissez les ascenseurs pour votre dos et de la poitrine maximum pendant un entraînement, on peut perdre l’endurance et l’enthousiasme de lever le plus lourd pour les jambes plus tard dans l’exercice.les entraînements sont de valeur pour tout le corps sport athlètes dont la puissance et l’agilité.elles vous permettent de former le corps comme une unité, athlète ¡¯ s au cours de la concurrence sont rarement exécutées isolément.corps plein entraînement recruter plus de masse musculaire totale au cours de chaque levée session, qui peuvent également bénéficier des athlètes.les athlètes qui participent à des séances de formation et de multiples pratiques par semaine peut également effectuer des exercices corporelle totale par opportunisme, car ils n’ont pas le temps de visiter la salle de musculation de quatre à six fois par semaine pour former dans splits.
l’objectif des athlètes est de devenir plus efficace dans leur formation devrait mettre l’accent sur la puissance, force, vitesse, agilité, souplesse, la conscience du corps, la coordination, la force mentale et l’établissement d’objectifs.alors que les limites supérieures / inférieures corps fendu peut aider certains de ces objectifs, qui peuvent atteindre plus d’entraînement corporel total ces objectifs à chaque session.par exemple, un organisme peut comprendre des mesures d’ensemble, comme des pompes, pullups – olympique qui forment le pouvoir, l’agilité et la force à la fois.

Arbeitskreis Volkszahl-Register

Der Arbeitskreis Volkszahl-Register (AKVZ) ist eine Gruppe von historisch Interessierten, ehrenamtlich Tätigen (gemeinnütziger, nicht eingetragener Verein).

Die Mitglieder und Mitarbeiter haben es sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die Ergebnisse der amtlichen, aber handschriftlichen Volkszählungsunterlagen der zurückliegenden 250 Jahre in die der heutigen Verkehrssitte entsprechenden lateinische Schrift zu übertragen und zu digitalisieren.

Dieses historische und personengeschichtliche Kulturgut ist für die interessierte Öffentlichkeit zugänglich und via Internet weltweit verfügbar crank meat tenderizer.

Die erste großflächige Zählung fand 1769 lediglich im Herzogtum Schleswig statt (ohne Guts- und Klosterbezirke). Volkszählungen wurden durch die seinerzeitigen Regierungen veranlasst und erstmals flächendeckend im Jahre 1803 in den gesamten Herzogtümern Schleswig und Herzogtum Holstein durchgeführt (erste allgemeine Volkszählung in Schleswig-Holstein). Im Jahre 1819 auch in dem Fürstbistum Lübeck und dem Groß-Herzogtum Mecklenburg, bestehend aus dem Herzogtum Mecklenburg-Schwerin und dem Herzogtum Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Die letzten erhaltenen Volkszahl-Register dieser Norddeutschen Region datieren aus dem Jahre 1864. Alle Personenlisten der später original football jerseys, in der preußischen Provinz Schleswig-Holstein durchgeführten Erhebungen wurden unmittelbar nach deren statistischer Auswertung durch die Berliner Zentral-Regierung vernichtet. Als einzige Ausnahme hiervon kann für Schleswig-Holstein die von der britischen Besatzungsmacht im Jahre 1946 durchgeführte Volkszählung angesehen werden.

Der überwiegende Teil der Erfassung 1769 ist verschollen. Die Erfassungslisten der Volkszählungen von 1803 bis 1864 sind fast vollständig in den Staats- bzw. Landesarchiven in Schleswig, Kopenhagen, Hamburg, Oldenburg und Schwerin bewahrt.

Hier setzt die Arbeit des AKVZ an: Diese Archivalien, in handschriftlicher alter deutscher Kurrentschrift, werden durch den AKVZ in die jetzt gebräuchliche lateinische Schrift transkribiert und in eine Datenbank eingespeist. Seit der Gründung des Arbeitskreises im Jahre 2002 haben es mehr als 200 Mitarbeiter des AKVZ geschafft, rund 3.350 Volkszählungen mit über 1.850.000 Personen-Datensätzen verfügbar zu machen (Stand: 1. April 2017).


Historische Forschung: