Monthly Archives: May 2016

Josef Schwammberger

Josef Schwammberger est né le 14 février 1912 à Brixen au sud du Tyrol (qui fait désormais partie de l’Italie) ; il est mort le 3 décembre 2004 à l’hôpital pour prisonniers Hohenasperg à Ludwigsburg). Schwammberger fut membre du Schutzstaffel (SS), avec le grade d’Oberscharführer, pendant la période nazie.
Pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Schwammberger était le commandant de plusieurs camps de travail forcé autour de Cracovie (Pologne). Il tint ce poste du mois d’août 1942 jusqu’au printemps de l’année 1944. De 1948 à 1987, il se cachait en Argentine. Enfin, il fut pris en 1987, et sa recherche coûta environ 500 000 Deutsche Marks au gouvernement de l’état allemand de Bade-Wurtemberg.
Lors de son procès, qui dura presque un an, Schwammberger continua à nier les crimes qui lui étaient reprochés et la seule chose qu’il admit était que les résidents du Ghetto A furent envoyés au camp Przemyśl. Le 18 mai 1992, il fut condamné par la cour régionale (Landgericht) de Stuttgart à passer le reste de sa vie dans la prison de Mannheim. La cour le condamna pour 7 meurtres et pour avoir été complice de 34 autres.
En août 2002, la cour régionale de Mannheim refusa de lui donner un sursis, en raison de la grande cruauté de ses crimes (l’assassinat de plusieurs Juifs de façon arbitraire pour des motifs raciaux).
En 2003, sa femme Käthe Schwammberger mourut en Argentine, âgée de 87 ans. Josef Schwammberger lui-même mourut en prison le 3 décembre 2004, âgé de 92 ans.

Umschau (Schifffahrt)

Unter Umschau wurde bis in die erste Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts die Kontaktaufnahme zwischen arbeitssuchenden Seeleuten und Schiffern im norddeutschen Raum verstanden.
Bis in die erste Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts war es im norddeutschen Raum (und hier besonders im Ostseeraum) üblich, dass die seinerzeit bäuerlich geprägte und zudem wetterabhängige Küstenschifffahrt in den drei Wintermonaten ruhte. Während dieser Zeit fanden sich Schiffer und Schiffsmannschaften in den verschiedenen Hafenplätzen für die kommende Saison im Verfahren der Umschau zusammen. In den meisten Hafenstädten gab es für das Zusammentreffen bestimmte Treffpunkte, wie Hafenkneipen, eine örtliche Schiffergesellschaft oder einen anderen dafür bekannten öffentlichen Platz (in Wismar war dies zum Beispiel der Fastelabendmarkt). Je nach Ort wurden bei der Umschau bestimmte Rituale eingehalten, so war es in Rostock üblich, dass arbeitssuchende Seeleute zwischen der Blutstraßenecke und dem Rathaus auf einer Straßenseite blieben und Kapitäne und Steuerleute auf der gegenüberliegenden Seite. In Warnemünde wurde teilweise ein älterer und erfahrener Matrose mit der Zusammenstellung der Mannschaft beauftragt. Insbesondere an der Ostseeküste stand schon recht lange vor Beginn der nächsten Fahrzeit fest, wer mit welchem Schiffer auf welchem Schiff fahren würde.
Mit dem Rückgang der lokal geprägten Kleinschifffahrt gegen Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts und der wachsenden Bedeutung der nicht so stark wetterabhängigen Dampfschifffahrt zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts verschwand auch das Verfahren, über die Umschau zu einem neuen Schiff zu kommen. Weitere Gründe für den Rückgang der Umschau waren zum einen anfangs die wachsenden Hafenstädte, die in größerer Anzahl Seeleute von außerhalb anzogen, welche dort auf Heuerbaase trafen, die als Vermittler zwischen Seemann und Schiffer auftraten, und später zum anderen die Reedereien, die eigene Heuerbüros zur Anstellung von Seeleuten einrichteten.

Rita Cirio

Rita Cirio (Cessole, 1945) è una saggista, drammaturga e giornalista italiana.

Critica teatrale de L’Espresso, fondò nel 1974 a Genova, con Emanuele Luzzati e altri, il Teatro della Tosse. Fu autrice di diversi testi e riduzioni teatrali: Dodici Cenerentole in cerca di autore, con illustrazioni di Emanuele Luzzati (Conegliano, Quadragono libri, 1976; poi Milano, Nuages, 1991); Frammenti di un discorso amoroso di Roland Barthes, messo in scena con la regia di Piero Maccarinelli con Massimo De Francovich. Fu autrice di numerosi saggi critici, tra cui Sentimental (con Pietro Favari), uscito come Almanacco Bompiani nel 1974, e considerato “uno dei pochissimi testi italiani dedicati al teatro di rivista”. Nel 1991 ebbe una serie di conversazioni sul cinema con Federico Fellini, che portarono alla pubblicazione di Il mestiere del regista. Intervista con Federico Fellini, Milano, Garzanti, 1995. Con Luzzati, con cui mantenne negli anni un solido rapporto di amicizia e collaborazione, ha realizzato Dipingere il teatro. Intervista su sessant’anni di scene, costumi, incontri, Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2000 .
Altri progetti

Impasse mexicaine

L’impasse mexicaine (Mexican standoff en anglais) est stricto sensu une situation avec au moins trois individus se menaçant mutuellement, aucun n’a intérêt à attaquer le premier, car, même s’il arrive à éliminer un de ses opposants, il s’expose trop à l’autre. La stratégie gagnante consiste à attendre qu’un autre agisse, bloquant ainsi toute action.
Par extension, cela désigne toute situation où les acteurs ont intérêt à maintenir le statu quo, y compris lorsque celui-ci leur est défavorable, plutôt que de tenter un mouvement qui risquerait d’aggraver la situation. La difficulté vient du fait que revenir en arrière pour sortir de la situation est aussi dangereux que d’essayer d’avancer (exemple de la crise des missiles de Cuba, en particulier le moment où le U-2 a été abattu). Le point important dans l’apparition de tels cas est le fait que les acteurs impliqués sont d’une force égale.
Le terme est fréquemment utilisé dans la culture populaire, notamment au cinéma. Les films d’action et leurs dérivés ont parfois recours à ce procédé qui tend à intensifier le caractère dramatique d’une scène-clé entre protagonistes et antagonistes :

Demange-aux-Eaux

Demange-aux-Eaux – miejscowość i gmina we Francji, w regionie Lotaryngia, w departamencie Moza.
Według danych na rok 1990 gminę zamieszkiwało 537 osób, a gęstość zaludnienia wynosiła 22 osób/km² (wśród 2335 gmin Lotaryngii Demange-aux-Eaux plasuje się na 569. miejscu pod względem liczby ludności, natomiast pod względem powierzchni na miejscu 107.).
Abainville • Amanty • Apremont-la-Forêt • Badonvilliers-Gérauvilliers • Bannoncourt • Baudignécourt • Baudrémont • Belrain • Beney-en-Woëvre • Bislée • Boncourt-sur-Meuse • Bonnet • Bouconville-sur-Madt • Bouquemont • Bovée-sur-Barboure • Boviolles • Brixey-aux-Chanoines • Broussey-en-Blois • Broussey-Raulecourt • Burey-en-Vaux • Burey-la-Côte • Buxières-sous-les-Côtes • Chaillon • Chalaines • Champougny • Chassey-Beaupré • Chauvoncourt • Chonville-Malaumont • Commercy • Courcelles-en-Barrois • Courouvre • Cousances-lès-Triconville • Dagonville • Dainville-Bertheléville • Delouze-Rosières • Demange-aux-Eaux • Dompcevrin • Dompierre-aux-Bois • Épiez-sur-Meuse • Erneville-aux-Bois • Euville • Frémeréville-sous-les-Côtes • Fresnes-au-Mont • Geville • Gimécourt • Girauvoisin • Gondrecourt-le-Château • Goussaincourt • Grimaucourt-près-Sampigny • Han-sur-Meuse • Heudicourt-sous-les-Côtes • Horville-en-Ornois • Houdelaincourt • Jonville-en-Woëvre • Kœur-la-Grande • Kœur-la-Petite • Lachaussée • Lacroix-sur-Meuse • Lahaymeix • Lahayville • Lamorville • Laneuville-au-Rupt • Lavallée • Lérouville • Les Paroches • Les Roises • Levoncourt • Lignières-sur-Aire • Longchamps-sur-Aire • Loupmont • Maizey • Marson-sur-Barboure • Mauvages • Maxey-sur-Vaise • Mécrin • Méligny-le-Grand • Méligny-le-Petit • Ménil-aux-Bois • Ménil-la-Horgne • Montbras • Montigny-lès-Vaucouleurs • Montsec • Naives-en-Blois • Nançois-le-Grand • Neuville-en-Verdunois • Neuville-lès-Vaucouleurs • Nicey-sur-Aire • Nonsard-Lamarche • Ourches-sur-Meuse • Pagny-la-Blanche-Côte • Pagny-sur-Meuse • Pierrefitte-sur-Aire • Pont-sur-Meuse • Rambucourt • Ranzières • Reffroy • Richecourt • Rigny-la-Salle • Rigny-Saint-Martin • Rouvrois-sur-Meuse • Rupt-devant-Saint-Mihiel • Saint-Aubin-sur-Aire • Saint-Germain-sur-Meuse • Saint-Joire • Saint-Julien-sous-les-Côtes • Saint-Maurice-sous-les-Côtes • Saint-Mihiel • Sampigny • Saulvaux • Sauvigny • Sauvoy • Sepvigny • Seuzey • Sorcy-Saint-Martin • Taillancourt • Thillombois • Tréveray • Troussey • Troyon • Ugny-sur-Meuse • Vadonville • Valbois • Varnéville • Vaucouleurs • Vaudeville-le-Haut • Vaux-lès-Palameix • Vigneulles-lès-Hattonchâtel • Vignot • Ville-devant-Belrain • Villeroy-sur-Méholle • Villotte-sur-Aire • Void-Vacon • Vouthon-Bas • Vouthon-Haut • Woimbey • Xivray-et-Marvoisin

Gaullism

Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political stance based on the thought and action of World War II French Resistance leader General Charles de Gaulle, who would become the founding President of the Fifth French Republic.
Serge Berstein writes that Gaullism is “neither a doctrine nor a political ideology” and cannot be considered either left or right. Rather, “considering its historical progression, it is a pragmatic exercise of power that is neither free from contradictions nor of concessions to momentary necessity, even if the imperious word of the general gives to the practice of Gaullism the allure of a program that seems profound and fully realized.” Gaullism is “a peculiarly French phenomenon, without doubt the quintessential French political phenomenon of the twentieth century.”
Lawrence D. Kritzman writes that Gaullism may be seen as a form of French patriotism in the tradition of Jules Michelet. He writes: “Aligned on the political spectrum with the Right, Gaullism was committed nevertheless to the republican values of the Revolution, and so distanced itself from the particularist ambitions of the traditional Right and its xenophobic causes, Gaullism saw as its mission the affirmation of national sovereignty and unity, which was diametrically opposed to the divisiveness created by the leftist commitment to class struggle.”

Berstein writes that Gaullism has progressed in multiple stages:
Since 1969, Gaullism is used to describe those identified as heirs to de Gaulle’s ideas.
The “fundamental principle” of Gaullism is a “certain idea of France” as a strong state. This idea appears in de Gaulle’s War Memoirs, in which he describes France as “an indomitable entity, a ‘person’ with whom a mystical dialogue was maintained throughout history. The goal of Gaullism, therefore, is to give precedence to its interests, to ensure that the voice is heard, to make it respected, and to assure its survival … to remain worthy of its past, the nation must endow itself with a powerful state.” Kritzman writes that “the Gaullist idea of France set out to restore the honor of the nation and affirm its grandeur and independence” with de Gaulle seeking to “construct a messianic vision of France’s historic destiny, reaffirm its prestige in the world, and transcend the national humiliations of the past. Accordingly, de Gaulle urged French unity over divisive “partisan quarrels” and emphasized French heritage, including both the Ancien Régime and the Revolution. The French political figures most admired by de Gaulle “were those responsible for national consensus—Louis XIV, Napoleon, Georges Clemenceau—who saw as their goal the creation of political and social unity by a strong state.”
In order to strengthen France, Gaullists also emphasize the need for “a strong economy and a stable society.” Gaullism believes, according to Berstein, that “it is the imperative of the state, as guardian of the national interest, to give impetus to economic growth and to guide it. Liberal opinions is accepted if it promises more efficiency than planning. As for social justice, so long as its natural distrust of big business can be allayed, it is less a matter of doctrine than a means of upholding stability. To put an end to class struggle, Gaullists hope to make use of participation, a nineteenth-century concept of which the general spoke frequently, but which he allowed his associates to ignore.”
As part of a strong state, de Gaulle emphasized the need to base state institutions on a strong executive. This was a departure from the French republican tradition, which emphasized the role of the elected assembly. De Gaulle, during his time in office, sought to establish authority by holding direct universal votes and popular referenda and by directly engaging with the nation (via speeches broadcast over radio, press conferences, and trips to the provinces). While de Gaulle frequently spoke on his respect for democracy, his political opponents perceived in his rule a tendency toward dictatorial power; many feared a Bonapartist revival or a republican monarchy. France remained a democracy, however, and de Gaulle’s decision to step down as president following voters’ rejection of the April 1969 constitutional referendum showed that his commitment to democracy was not merely a rhetorical ploy.
In foreign policy, Gaullists are identified with both realism and French exceptionalism, and de Gaulle sought to impose French influence on the global order. Gaullists supported decolonization, which freed France from the burden of empire. This was reflected in de Gaulle’s resolution of the Algeria crisis (1958–62), which was strongly influenced by de Gaulle’s realpolitik, or “keen sense of political expediency.” De Gaulle realized that decolonization was inevitable, and that a continued crisis and extended Algerian War would harm the French economy and perpetuate national disunity. Accordingly, “de Gaulle felt that it was in France’s best interests to grant independence and desist from military engagement,” thereby preserving French unity and grandeur.
Gaullists emphasize the need for France to “guarantee its national independence without resorting to allies whose interests might not coincide with those of France.” The development of independent French nuclear capability, undertaken at significant effort despite much international criticism, was an outgrowth of this worldview. France under de Gaulle sought to avoid a post-World War II bipolar global political order dominated by the two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union, and sought to avoid dependence on the United States. Kritzman writes: “Gaullist foreign policy was motivated by its need to distinguish itself from … the two great superpowers. Paradoxically, [de Gaulle] desired to be part of the Western alliance and be critical of it at the same time on key issues such as defense.” Most notably, de Gaulle withdrew France from North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military operations in 1966, and directed non-French NATO troops to leave France, although France remained a NATO member. Gaullists were also critical of the overseas economic influence of the U.S. and the role of the U.S. dollar in the international monetary system. Under de Gaulle, France established diplomatic relations with China earlier than any other Western nation; imposed an arms embargo against Israel (1967); and denounced American imperialism in the Third World.
De Gaulle and the Gaullists did not support Europe as a supranational entity, but did favor European integration in the form of “a confederation of sovereign states mutually engaged in “common policy, autonomous from the superpowers,” and significantly influenced by France. De Gaulle’s hopes to advance this sort of union largely failed, however, “in the face of the desire of the other European powers to remain closely allied to the United States.
De Gaulle’s political legacy has been profound in France. De Gaulle’s successor as president, Georges Pompidou, consolidated Gaullism during his term from 1969 to 1974. Once-controversial Gaullist ideas have become accepted as part of the French political consensus and “are no longer the focus of political controversy.” For example, the strong presidency was maintained by all of de Gaulle’s successors, including the socialist François Mitterrand (president 1981–95). French independent nuclear capability and a foreign policy influenced by Gaullism (although expressed “in more flexible terms”) remains “the guiding force of French international relations.” Berstein writes: “It is no exaggeration to say that Gaullism has molded post-war France. At the same time, considering that the essence of Gaullist ideas are now accepted by everyone, those who wish to be the legitimate heirs of de Gaulle (e.g., Jacques Chirac of the RPR) now have an identity crisis. It is difficult for them to distinguish themselves from other political perspectives.”
Not all Gaullist ideas have endured, however. Since the 1980s, there have been several periods of cohabitation (1986-1988, 1993-1995, 1997-2002), in which the president and prime minister have been from different parties, a marked shift from the “imperial presidency” of de Gaulle. De Gaulle’s economic policy, based on the idea of dirigisme (state stewardship of the economy) has also weakened. As recently as the mid-1980s, the major French banks, as well as insurance, telecommunications, steel, oil and pharmaceutical companies, were state-owned. Starting in the mid-1980s and continuing through the 1990s and 2000s, the French government has privatized many state assets.

Zipf’s law

Zipf’s law /ˈzɪf/, an empirical law formulated using mathematical statistics, refers to the fact that many types of data studied in the physical and social sciences can be approximated with a Zipfian distribution, one of a family of related discrete power law probability distributions. The law is named after the American linguist George Kingsley Zipf (1902–1950), who popularized it and sought to explain it (Zipf 1935, 1949), though he did not claim to have originated it. The French stenographer Jean-Baptiste Estoup (1868–1950) appears to have noticed the regularity before Zipf. It was also noted in 1913 by German physicist Felix Auerbach (1856–1933).

Zipf’s law states that given some corpus of natural language utterances, the frequency of any word is inversely proportional to its rank in the frequency table. Thus the most frequent word will occur approximately twice as often as the second most frequent word, three times as often as the third most frequent word, etc.: the rank-frequency distribution is an inverse relation. For example, in the Brown Corpus of American English text, the word “the” is the most frequently occurring word, and by itself accounts for nearly 7% of all word occurrences (69,971 out of slightly over 1 million). True to Zipf’s Law, the second-place word “of” accounts for slightly over 3.5% of words (36,411 occurrences), followed by “and” (28,852). Only 135 vocabulary items are needed to account for half the Brown Corpus.
The same relationship occurs in many other rankings unrelated to language, such as the population ranks of cities in various countries, corporation sizes, income rankings, ranks of number of people watching the same TV channel, and so on. The appearance of the distribution in rankings of cities by population was first noticed by Felix Auerbach in 1913. Empirically, a data set can be tested to see whether Zipf’s law applies by checking the goodness of fit of an empirical distribution to the hypothesized power law distribution with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and then comparing the (log) likelihood ratio of the power law distribution to alternative distributions like an exponential distribution or lognormal distribution. When Zipf’s law is checked for cities, a better fit has been found with b = 1.07; i.e. the largest settlement is the size of the largest settlement. While Zipf’s law holds for the upper tail of the distribution, the entire distribution of cities is log-normal and follows Gibrat’s law. Both laws are consistent because a log-normal tail can typically not be distinguished from a Pareto (Zipf) tail.
Zipf’s law is most easily observed by plotting the data on a log-log graph, with the axes being log (rank order) and log (frequency). For example, the word “the” (as described above) would appear at x = log(1), y = log(69971). It is also possible to plot reciprocal rank against frequency or reciprocal frequency or interword interval against rank. The data conform to Zipf’s law to the extent that the plot is linear.
Formally, let:
Zipf’s law then predicts that out of a population of N elements, the frequency of elements of rank k, f(k;s,N), is:
Zipf’s law holds if the number of elements with a given frequency is a random variable with power law distribution
It has been claimed that this representation of Zipf’s law is more suitable for statistical testing, and in this way it has been analyzed in more than 30,000 English texts. The goodness-of-fit tests yield that only about 15% of the texts are statistically compatible with this form of Zipf’s law. Slight variations in the definition of Zipf’s law can increase this percentage up to close to 50%.
In the example of the frequency of words in the English language, N is the number of words in the English language and, if we use the classic version of Zipf’s law, the exponent s is 1. f(k; s,N) will then be the fraction of the time the kth most common word occurs.
The law may also be written:
where HN,s is the Nth generalized harmonic number.
The simplest case of Zipf’s law is a “1⁄f function”. Given a set of Zipfian distributed frequencies, sorted from most common to least common, the second most common frequency will occur ½ as often as the first. The third most common frequency will occur ⅓ as often as the first. The nth most common frequency will occur 1⁄n as often as the first. However, this cannot hold exactly, because items must occur an integer number of times; there cannot be 2.5 occurrences of a word. Nevertheless, over fairly wide ranges, and to a fairly good approximation, many natural phenomena obey Zipf’s law.
Mathematically, the sum of all relative frequencies in a Zipf distribution is equal to the harmonic series, and
In human languages, word frequencies have a very heavy-tailed distribution, and can therefore be modeled reasonably well by a Zipf distribution with an s close to 1.
As long as the exponent s exceeds 1, it is possible for such a law to hold with infinitely many words, since if s > 1 then
where ζ is Riemann’s zeta function.
Although Zipf’s Law holds for most languages, even for non-natural languages like Esperanto, the reason is still not well understood . However, it may be partially explained by the statistical analysis of randomly generated texts. Wentian Li has shown that in a document in which each character has been chosen randomly from a uniform distribution of all letters (plus a space character), the “words” follow the general trend of Zipf’s law (appearing approximately linear on log-log plot). Vitold Belevitch in a paper, On the Statistical Laws of Linguistic Distribution offered a mathematical derivation. He took a large class of well-behaved statistical distributions (not only the normal distribution) and expressed them in terms of rank. He then expanded each expression into a Taylor series. In every case Belevitch obtained the remarkable result that a first-order truncation of the series resulted in Zipf’s law. Further, a second-order truncation of the Taylor series resulted in Mandelbrot’s law.
The principle of least effort is another possible explanation: Zipf himself proposed that neither speakers nor hearers using a given language want to work any harder than necessary to reach understanding, and the process that results in approximately equal distribution of effort leads to the observed Zipf distribution.
Zipf’s law in fact refers more generally to frequency distributions of “rank data,” in which the relative frequency of the nth-ranked item is given by the Zeta distribution, 1/(nsζ(s)), where the parameter s > 1 indexes the members of this family of probability distributions. Indeed, Zipf’s law is sometimes synonymous with “zeta distribution,” since probability distributions are sometimes called “laws”. This distribution is sometimes called the Zipfian or Yule distribution.
A generalization of Zipf’s law is the Zipf–Mandelbrot law, proposed by Benoît Mandelbrot, whose frequencies are:
The “constant” is the reciprocal of the Hurwitz zeta function evaluated at s. In practice, as easily observable in distribution plots for large corpora, the observed distribution can better be modelled as a sum of separate distributions for different subsets or subtypes of words that follow different parameterizations of the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, in particular the closed class of functional words exhibit “s” lower than 1, while open-ended vocabulary growth with document size and corpus size require “s” greater than 1 for convergence of the Generalized Harmonic Series.
Zipfian distributions can be obtained from Pareto distributions by an exchange of variables.
The Zipf distribution is sometimes called the discrete Pareto distribution because it is analogous to the continuous Pareto distribution in the same way that the discrete uniform distribution is analogous to the continuous uniform distribution.
The tail frequencies of the Yule–Simon distribution are approximately
for any choice of ρ > 0.
In the parabolic fractal distribution, the logarithm of the frequency is a quadratic polynomial of the logarithm of the rank. This can markedly improve the fit over a simple power-law relationship. Like fractal dimension, it is possible to calculate Zipf dimension, which is a useful parameter in the analysis of texts.
It has been argued that Benford’s law is a special bounded case of Zipf’s law, with the connection between these two laws being explained by their both originating from scale invariant functional relations from statistical physics and critical phenomena. The ratios of probabilities in Benford’s law are not constant. The leading digits of data satisfying Zipf’s law with s = 1 satisfies Benford’s law.
Primary:
Secondary:
International Conference on Bioinformatics Computational Biology: 2011.

Apache Portable Runtime

Die Bibliothek Apache Portable Runtime (APR) ist ein Open Source-Softwareprodukt der Apache Software Foundation. Es handelt sich um die konsequente Weiterentwicklung einzelner Verallgemeinerungsfunktionen aus einer älteren Version des Apache HTTP Servers: Dieser Webserver läuft unter verschiedenen Betriebssystemen (unter anderem Linux und andere Unix-Varianten, Windows und Netware).
Diese Systeme bieten für identische Aufgaben leicht unterschiedliche Schnittstellen. Zur Vereinheitlichung behalf man sich in früheren Versionen von Apache auf Nicht-Unix-Plattformen mit einer POSIX-Emulationsschicht. Da dies auf Kosten von Stabilität und Geschwindigkeit geht, gingen die Entwickler bei der Apache-Version 2.0 einen neuen Weg: Die APR wird für jede Plattform separat aufgesetzt und stellt nach außen Funktionen mit identischem Verhalten zur Verfügung. Auf diese Weise verallgemeinert (abstrahiert) sie bestimmte Basisfunktionen, die der Webserver benötigt, ohne die individuellen Stärken der einzelnen Systeme auszubremsen.
Die Apache Portable Runtime stellt unter anderem Funktionen aus folgenden Aufgabengebieten bereit:
Da die APR die Programmierung plattformunabhängiger Netzwerkanwendungen stark vereinfacht, machen inzwischen auch andere Projekte der Apache Software Foundation und andere Anbieter Gebrauch von ihr, zum Beispiel Apache Flood, JXTA-C, einige Tomcat-Module oder das Versionskontrollsystem Subversion.

Telkom Media

Telkom Media is a pay-TV company based in South Africa. It is intended to be the first provider of IPTV services in South Africa.

South African fixed-line telephone operator Telkom announced the creation of Telkom Media in August 2006, when it also applied for commercial satellite and cable-subscription broadcast licenses from the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa. Shareholders in the company included Telkom, Videovision Entertainment, MSG Afrika Media and WDB Investment Holdings.
In April 2007 the company said it was conducting an internal IPTV trial.
The total investment in startup was to amount to R7-billion, with R3.5-billion due to be sourced from Telkom.
Telkom Media received its licence in September 2007 in a process that included the award of three other new pay-TV licences.
In March 2008 Telkom said it would reduce its funding by R2.2-billion as other investments, such as a mobile wireless network, provided a shorter period for return.
In June 2008 Telkom said it intended to sell its (then 66 percent) stake in Telkom Media. By June it was said to have identified a buyer from among several interested parties and in November 2008 Telkom confirmed that negotiations were at an advanced stage. The interested party was rumoured to be a South African consortium funded out of China.
In March 2009 the interested Chinese party was identified as the Shenzhen Media Group amid reports that negotiations had failed because Telkom sought compensation for its sunk investment in the business.
In late March 2009 Telkom said it had failed to find a buyer and intended closing down the company, having written down a R430-million shareholder loan to it. The total costs of the company were estimated to be R700-million. A shareholder meeting to approve the shut down was due to be held before the end of April 2009.
However, in early May 2009 Telkom announced that it had sold its stake to Shenzen Media, without immediately releasing further details.

Edward Albert

Edward Albert (February 20, 1951 – September 22, 2006) was an American film and television actor.

Albert was born Edward Laurence Heimberger in Los Angeles, California, to actor Eddie Albert (1906-2005), and Mexican actress Margo (1917- 1985).
Albert made his motion picture debut in a 1965 drama, The Fool Killer, as a runaway orphan who crossed paths with a disturbed Civil War veteran, played by Anthony Perkins. He is best known for his work in the 1972 film Butterflies Are Free, in which he played a blind man, starring opposite Goldie Hawn. The performance earned him a Golden Globe Award as Most Promising Male Newcomer.
The following year, he starred opposite Liv Ullmann in the film adaptation of the play 40 Carats. Albert appeared as a U.S. Navy fighter pilot in the epic 1976 film Midway, portraying the son of a famous (and fictitious) naval captain (played by Charlton Heston). Later in 1976 he made a guest appearance in an episode of the NBC dramatic series Gibbsville. He also was featured in the Gene Hackman suspense film The Domino Principle (1977) and the drama The Greek Tycoon (1978) opposite Anthony Quinn and Jacqueline Bisset. In 1981, he starred opposite Ray Walston and Erin Moran in Roger Corman’s cult SF horror film, Galaxy of Terror.
During the 1983-84 TV season he co-starred as Quisto Champion on the NBC series The Yellow Rose along with Sam Elliott, Cybil Shepard and David Soul. He also had a recurring role in the late 1980s television series Beauty and the Beast, in which he played Elliot Burch, the millionaire New York developer who loved series heroine, Catherine Chandler (played by Linda Hamilton). He also played Mr. Collins, father to Wesley Collins, the Red Ranger from Power Rangers Time Force. Albert also voiced the blind superhero Daredevil in two episodes of Spider-Man: The Animated Series in the 1990s. Albert also appeared in the 1987 film The Underachievers.
In The Ice Runner (1992), he played a betrayed and threatened agent arrested in Russia, who wants to escape from his prison. In 1993, he made a guest appearance in the television show Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman (season 2, episodes 6 & 7, “Where the heart is” Parts 1 & 2) as Dr. William Burke, the Boston doctor competing with Sully for Dr. Mike’s attention. In Guarding Tess (1994), he played the son of kidnapped former First Lady Tess Carlisle (Shirley MacLaine).
Albert was a prominent advocate of both the environment and the heritage and rights of Native Americans, especially the local Chumash tribe, and served on both the California Coastal Commission and the California Native American Heritage Commission.
In his last years, Albert cared for his father who suffered from Alzheimer’s disease and died at the age of 99 in May 2005. Albert was diagnosed with lung cancer in early 2005 and died on September 22, 2006, at the age of 55. Albert was survived by his wife, actress Kate Woodville (1938- 2013), their daughter, and his sister.